18 Dec

A revitalized biopsychosocial model: core theory, research paradigms, and clinical implications PMC

However, I suggest, the position has changed by now, and theories that can underpin a broader BPSM are well-known and can be drawn upon to revitalize the model. I never had an alcohol problem, and I used to drink now and then, but after I quit drinking, I understood that the substance use problem was maintained when I drank. Ethical issues were considered during the recruitment, the interviews, the analysis, and the data interpretation. Conducting in-depth interviews about sensitive subjects requires great awareness and respect for the ‘informants’ emotions and boundaries [12].


The Psychological Model has been supported by a wealth of research that highlights the strong relationship between addiction and mental health issues. Studies have shown that individuals with substance use disorders are more likely to have co-occurring mental health disorders, such as depression, anxiety, and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Furthermore, it has been demonstrated that experiencing trauma or significant life stressors can increase an individual’s vulnerability to addiction. Translating the principals of social learning theory into actionable practices for addiction does not mean that inpatient treatment should cease – indeed, some components of inpatient treatment are absolutely critical (e.g., detoxification). It also does not mean that the solution for addiction is already at hand in the church basements and community centers across the country where 12-step programs meet.

biopsychosocial model of addiction

The medicalizing power of wayward discourse

Realizing a neurobiological or genetic susceptibility to addiction could empower life planning and the avoidance of high-risk scenarios. Individuals involved in treatment could learn effective coping strategies, modify proximal environmental triggers, and achieve other social goals. As Hall and colleagues (2003a) remark, “A ‘disease’ that can be ‘seen’ in the many-hued splendor of a PET scan carries more conviction than one justified by the possibly exculpatory self-reports of individuals who claim to be unable to control their drug use” (p.1485).

Social and Environmental Factors

Neuroethics challenges arise when knowledge exclusively from neuroscience is deemed adequate to obtain a full understanding of a mental health disorder as complex as addiction. While the practicality of biopsychosocial systems model may allow for a more integrative explanation for addiction, it does not explain addiction https://www.cosmoisida.ru/zdorove/zhenschinyi-glupeyut-ot-nikotina.html entirely. Indeed, there is no single theory or approach that can offer a complete explanation for the existence of any social problem (Merton 1961). Moreover, the model does not solve the problem of free choice, as the model still, even at the systems (macro) level, has causally sufficient preceding conditions.

Assessment tools for screening and clinical evaluation of psychosocial aspects in addictive disorders

It is important not to look at the biological dimension as neurobiology alone, but to also take into consideration aspects of health functioning such as addictive behaviour, diet, exercise, self-care, nutrition, sleep and genetics. It was advanced in genetics that introduced into biology theoretical ideas of a new kind of science involving coding, information-transfer, error, http://www.hallart.ru/other/from-russia-with-love regulation and control, additional to energy-transfer and -exchanges covered by physical–chemical laws (equations). Further, theories of genetics have always been thoroughly interactional across domains, in evolutionary theory, and recently in the new field of epigenetics, including in psychiatry (Campanile, Fanelli, Fabbri, Serretti, & Mendlewicz, 2022; Cecil, 2020).

  • For example, although genetics may have a role in causing schizophrenia, no clinician would ignore the sociologic factors that might unleash or contain the manifestations of the illness.
  • Meanwhile, LCP consider not only how disadvantage impacts health outcomes, but how cumulative advantage can play a role (218).
  • Media headlines such as “Brain’s Addiction Centre Found” (BBC 2007) speak to the power of neuroscience and its ability to construct images of the brain, such that it has become easy to defer to its account of the complex phenomena that constitute addiction.
  • It is essential to consider this model within the broader context of other addiction models that take into account biological, psychological, and social factors.


Note that a number of more specific versions of the BPSM have been proposed over the years (Bolton and Gillett 2019; Lindau et al. 2003; Wade and Halligan 2017). My focus will be on references to, and applications of, the general version of the BPSM described above. The biological basis of addiction helps to explain why people need much more than good intentions or willpower to break their addictions.

  • Of all the stimuli in our environment, it is other people – particularly those people with whom we maintain our most intimate relationships – that arguably have the largest impact on our behavior.
  • In their article, Slade et al. explain how researchers went about the OPPERA study and describe some of its key findings.
  • Dr. George Engel and Dr. John Romano developed this model in the 1970s, but the concept of this has existed in medicine for centuries.
  • It is referenced frequently in the literature, and has provided the data underlying many claims made about TMD and its causes.

The Biopsychosocial Model 25 Years Later: Principles, Practice, and Scientific Inquiry

For instance, substance use and addiction have negative effects on the quality of intimate relationships, domestic partnerships, and family dynamics (Center for Substance Abuse Treatment, 2004; Fals-Steward, 2003; Martin et al., 1996). Moreover, substance use leads to changes in group affiliation as the person exits native groups and enters groups that https://www.lifestyll.com/how-to-plan-for-a-pet-safe-holiday/ are more open to drug use by their members (McCabe et al., 2005; Poulin et al., 2011; Scalco et al., 2015). When the social environment changes in ways that lead the individual to affiliate with social groups that promote drug use over abstinence, there is a further increase in the likelihood that a person will escalate their drug use over time.

biopsychosocial model of addiction

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